Electric tools classification and maintenance methods

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Electric Tools Classification

An electric tool refers to a tool that uses a small-power motor or electromagnet as a power to drive the working head through a transmission mechanism. Advantages: Power tools have the advantages of convenient carrying, simple operation, and diverse functions, which can greatly reduce labor intensity, improve work efficiency, and realize manual operation mechanization. Therefore, they are widely used in construction, housing decoration, automobiles, machinery, electricity, bridges, and gardening. And other fields, and enter the family in large numbers. Features: Power tools are characterized by light structure, small size, light weight, low vibration, low noise, flexible operation, easy control and operation, easy to carry and use, strong and durable. Compared with manual tools, it can increase labor productivity by several to tens of times; it is more efficient than pneumatic tools, has low cost and is easy to control. What are the power tool accessories: rotor, stator, gear, bearing, switch, carbon brush, carbon brush holder, carbon brush cover, power cord.

 

What are the power tools
1. Electric drill: a tool for drilling holes in metal materials and plastics. It can be used as an electric screwdriver when equipped with a forward and reverse switch and an electronic speed control device. Some models are equipped with rechargeable batteries. 2. Electric hammer: used for drilling masonry, concrete, artificial or natural stones, etc., and the function of the electric drill is interchangeable. Light drills widely use SDS-PLUS drill chucks and drill bits, and medium and heavy hammer drills are replaced with SDS-MAX chucks and drill bits and can be mounted with chisels. 3. Percussion drills: electric tools mainly used for drilling harder materials such as masonry and concrete. When the impact mechanism is closed, it can also be used as an ordinary electric drill. 4. Grinding wheel machine: a tool for grinding with a grinding wheel or disc, used for grinding wood. There are straight electric grinders and electric angle grinders. Need to install sandpaper. 5. Jig saw: Mainly used for cutting steel, wood, plastic and other materials. The saw blade reciprocates or swings up and down. It is most suitable for cutting precise straight lines or curves. 6. Angle grinder: also known as grinder or disc grinder, mainly used for grinding steel, metal and stone. Commonly used grinding discs have diameters of 100mm, 125mm, 180mm, and 230mm. 7. Cutting machine: It is mainly used for cutting aluminum and wood at different angles. It is divided into metal material cutting machine and non-metal material cutting machine. When using it, pay attention to tightening the saw blade and wearing goggles. 8. Electric wrench and electric screwdriver: Both electric wrench and electric screwdriver are used for loading and unloading threaded connections. The transmission mechanism of the electric wrench is composed of a planetary gear and a ball spiral groove impact mechanism. The electric screwdriver adopts a jaw clutch transmission mechanism or a gear transmission mechanism. 9. Concrete vibrator: used for tamping concrete when pouring concrete foundations and reinforced concrete components. Among them, the high-frequency disturbance power of the electric direct-coupled vibrator is formed by the rotation of the eccentric mass driven by the motor, and the motor is powered by a 150Hz or 200Hz intermediate frequency power supply. 10. Electric planer: used for planing wood or wooden structural parts. It can also be used as a small planer when installed on a bench. The knife shaft of the electric planer is driven by a motor shaft through a belt. 11. Marble machine: generally cut stone, you can choose dry or wet cutting, commonly used saw blades are: dry saw blades, wet saw blades, wet and dry saw blades. Home improvement is used to cut wall and floor tiles.

 

The difference between electric tools and pneumatic tools
1. Working ability: Both provide a variety of different working methods, but the pneumatic tool speed adjustment and output power adjustment are simple, and under the same output power, it is more compact and lighter. In addition, pneumatic tools can provide more levels of choice in the speed range, there is no heating and overload failure, when the overload is started, the tool only stops rotating, and once the overload is removed, normal operation will be restored. 2. Environmental adaptability: In terms of environmental application capabilities, pneumatic tools are more resistant to water. Although water immersion is harmful to the tool, it will not generate electric sparks and cause harm like hardware electric tools. And because the pneumatic tool can use an internal combustion engine air pump, it can adapt to various bad or harsh environments. 3. Economy: In terms of economic performance, the initial investment of electric tools is relatively small, but the long-term use of energy consumption is high, and the cost of tool maintenance and replacement is also high. The initial investment of pneumatic tools requires the establishment of air pressure pipeline equipment, but the long-term use of energy consumption and tool maintenance costs lower.

 

Electric tool purchase
1. Purpose: According to the need to distinguish between home use and professional use, because most electric tools are designed for professionals, you should distinguish between professional and general household tools when purchasing. Generally, the difference between professional and general household tools is in power. The power of professional tools is larger, and the general household input power does not need to be large. 2. Appearance: The outer packaging pattern is clear and undamaged, the plastic box is firm, and the buckle is firm and durable. The appearance of the tool is uniform in color, the surface of the plastic parts has no obvious shadows, dents, scratches or bumps, the assembly misalignment between the shell parts is ≤0.5mm, the aluminum casting coating is smooth and has no defects, and the surface of the whole machine is free of oil stains. The handle of the switch is flat when held by hand, and the cable length is generally not less than 2 meters. 3. Nameplate parameters: qualified products with “3C” certification should be selected, and the nameplate parameters of the power tool should be consistent with the CCC certificate. The detailed address and contact information of the manufacturer and the manufacturer should be included in the tool manual. There should be a traceable batch number on the nameplate or certificate. 4. Convenience: Small and exquisite, highly integrated electric tools are undoubtedly more convenient to use than large, single-function products. It is recommended that you make a horizontal comparison of related products when purchasing household power tools, and try to choose power tools that are rich in functions, small in size, simple in structure, and easy to store. 5. Safety: Hold the tool by hand, turn on the power, operate the switch frequently to start the tool frequently, and observe whether the on-off function of the tool switch is reliable. At the same time, observe whether there are any abnormalities in the TV and fluorescent lamps on site. In order to confirm whether the tool is equipped with an effective radio interference suppressor. 6. Vibration and sparks: The tool is energized and run for one minute. Hold it with your hand while running. The hand should not obviously feel any abnormal vibration. Observe the reversing spark. The reversing spark should not exceed level 3/2. Look inward at the air inlet of the tool, and there should be no obvious arc on the surface of the commutator. 7. Noise: Most household electric tools will produce a certain amount of noise when in use, but there are also high and low noise levels. It is recommended (especially for families with children and the elderly) to try the tools once when purchasing household electric tools to see if the noise of the electric tools is within the acceptable range.

 

Precautions for the use of electric tools
1. For general occasions, class II products should be used, and class II or class III products should be used in humid places or metal structures with good electrical conductivity. Class III products should be used in narrow places such as metal containers, pipes, and boilers. If Class I products are used, other necessary safety measures shall be taken in accordance with safety requirements. 2. It must be carefully inspected before use, the appearance is not damaged, the switch action is flexible and not jammed, and the power lead and the shell of the power tool should be intact. Use a 500V megohmmeter to measure the insulation resistance between the winding and the housing and it shall not be less than 0.5 megohm. Hand-held power tools with metal shells should have reliable protective grounding wires. 3. The power socket must match the power plug of the power tool, and keep the equipment away from rain and damp environment. When using power tools outdoors, use an extended power cord that is allowed to be used outdoors, and keep the power cord away from heat, oil, sharp edges, or moving tool parts. The operating switch should be placed within the reach of the operator. 4. According to the form and characteristics of the power tool, bring personal protective equipment and wear appropriate clothing. Before opening the power tool, remove and remove the adjusting screwdriver or wrench. During use, you should strictly abide by the relevant safety operation regulations and connect and use it correctly. Don’t overload, stay awake, focus and operate the power tool sensibly.

建筑工具类-02

Common power tool maintenance

What are the common failures of electric hammers?
Electric hammer is a kind of electric tools, mainly used in concrete. Floor. Drill holes in brick walls and stone. Professional drilling on wall, concrete, stone, and multi-function electric hammer, adjust to the proper position with proper drill bit can replace ordinary electric drill, electric pick. In daily use, what faults will the electric hammer encounter? What should I do if there is a malfunction? The editor of Buygo.com summarized the following points: 1. Electric hammer electrical faults Electric hammer electrical faults mainly include open circuit, short circuit, grounding, and large sparks in the rotor commutation ring. The fault of the open circuit is mostly the broken leather wire. The leather wire is the most common broken at the root of the handle. One characteristic of this type of disconnection is to connect the power cord of the electric hammer to the resistance gear of the multimeter, press the switch, and use your hand. The readings of the multimeter will change at the root of the movable leather cable. In addition, the root of the plug is also easy to break, and there are many cases of broken switches. The switch can be checked with a multimeter. Poor contact of the carbon brush can also cause an open circuit. Check There are two ways to contact the carbon brush machine: First, observe that the end surface of the carbon brush is smooth and in good contact, while the pitted surface is in poor contact. Another way to check is to connect the test lead of the multimeter to the end of the motor, and use two screwdrivers to press it on the brush socket and rotor at the same time. If it is connected at this time, it means that the motor has no fault. After the carbon brush is not connected, it means that the carbon brush is in contact. bad. Blowing of the stator earrings can also cause the motor to break. The rotor is sometimes disconnected. The characteristic is that the power cord is connected to the multimeter, and the rotor is slowly rotated, and the readings will change greatly. Grounding is generally caused by the iron rubbing of the stator and rotor, and the iron rubbing needs to be changed. The rotor, the other is the drying caused by water or moisture. Large rotor sparks are generally caused by rotor failure. You need to replace the rotor. After the rotor is replaced, observe whether there is iron wiping. If the iron is severely wiped, there will be a choking sound when the machine is turned on. If the iron is lightly wiped, the working time will be burnt if the working time is long. The smell current also rises. The reasons for the iron rubbing include loosening of the screws fixing the stator, too loose bearing seats, deformation of the stator shell, and damage to the bearings. 2. Mechanical failure of electric hammer The most important mechanical part of electric hammer is non-impact and weak impact. The main reason for non-impact is the aging of the rubber ring on the piston and the hammer. The big cylinder is erected with the mouth facing downwards. If the hammer can fall freely, the rubber ring must be aging. When the rubber ring is working, you can hear the sound of the piston and the hammer colliding with each other. After removing it, you can find that the end faces of the piston and the hammer are shiny. Short impact seeds can also cause No shock (compare with the new shock seed). No oil can also cause weak shock. If the above conditions are normal and there is no impact, then you must carefully observe the large cylinder to see if there are cracks, and the cracks need to be replaced. If the motor rotates after the machine is turned on and the hammer head turns and cannot hear the compression sound, it may be that the connecting rod is broken or the eccentric wheel is broken. If the motor rotates after the machine is turned on, and the hammer does not rotate or compress, it is possible that the primary wheel is damaged or the rotor shaft is broken. Then there is a broken umbrella tooth, which shows weakness or no rotation at all. There is another phenomenon that I urge everyone to pay attention to, that is, the key is broken. When we check the fit between the gear and the shaft, due to the strong friction between the shaft and the gear rubber, it is not easy to find the break of the key, but it cannot work normally after loading. Before replacing new parts, we must clean up the stolen goods and oil stains in the fault point so that we can find other faults. The needle roller bearing in the middle cover must be used well. If a defective product is used, if it is damaged, the first-stage wheel and the shaft of the rotor can be easily damaged. Finally, the editor of Buygo.com reminds you that if you are a newly opened store and cannot accurately judge the faults of various tools, you may wish to remove some new tools first, as long as you remember the cooperation and data of various tools under normal conditions. , You can feel that the fault point is abnormal when it is repaired.
Maintenance of electric drills. Electric drill maintenance. A hand drill is a tool that we often need to use in our lives. It is a relatively common power tool. If you are using a hand drill, it suddenly breaks. What should you do? ? The most prone to failure of a hand electric drill lies in its motor and armature windings. Here are some common faults and their maintenance methods. Repair of motor failures. Motor failures are often manifested as: after the power is turned on, the motor does not respond, causing the electric drill to not work properly; or the motor turns slower and slower, which causes the impact force of the electric drill to decrease and cannot work normally; in addition, the motor fails It also shows that the noise of the motor is too large when the motor is working, and the electric drill can’t help trembling. These will cause the electric drill to malfunction and affect its normal operation. For the first type of failure, the motor cannot work normally. The drill body should be disassembled to check whether the fuse is blown or the power cord is blown. If there is such a problem, the fuse or power cord should be replaced immediately; it may also be caused by the armature winding. Or if the stator winding is damaged, the winding must be replaced or repaired; it may also be due to the rust of the bearing, which should be lubricated or derusted. The second type of failure, the motor speed slows down, which is caused by severe wear and tear of the brushes, and should be replaced immediately. The third type of fault is the excessive noise of the motor, which is caused by the wear of the brushes or bearings, which requires replacement of the brushes and bearings. Maintenance of the armature winding The armature winding is a very important component in the electric drill, and its damage will cause the electric drill to fail to work normally. Common faults are short-circuit and short-circuit of the armature winding. (The following is the schematic diagram of the armature winding) The schematic diagram of the armature winding The armature winding is short-circuited. This is due to the damage of the insulation surface of the adjacent coils of the armature winding, which causes the coil to fail to be energized, which affects the normal operation. Therefore, when it is found that the coil is damaged or the surface insulation material of the wire turns is damaged, we should replace the coil in time to maintain the normal operation of the armature winding. The short circuit problem of the armature winding is more complicated than the short circuit problem. Because of the short circuit, we can judge whether the winding insulation material on the surface of the coil is damaged, but the open circuit problem cannot. We can use a universal measuring meter to detect. If the resistance value between the two commutators is greater than the normal parameter, then there must be an open circuit between the coils between the two commutators, and you should immediately check the resistance between the two commutators. The coil is replaced. These are about the failure analysis of repairing hand drills and its simple repair methods, I hope you readers and friends will be able to use it.
Electric screwdriver repair method Imported electric screwdriver repair method: 1. Repair tools Two multimeters (one for analog and one for digital, analog type is indispensable), diagonal pliers, needle-nose pliers, soldering iron, soldering iron stand. Flux, tin wire, tin suction device, fine sandpaper, heat shrinkable tube, wire stripper, shot blasting machine slotted screwdriver (one for small and medium), Phillips screwdriver (one for small and medium, plus a screwdriver with rubber handle ), utility knife. 2. Circuit working principle 1. Process input (protector, micro switch) → rectifier → filter → positive and negative switch → motor → clutch 2. Normal parameters of each electronic component (1), power cord: measure the DC resistance value, normal The value approaches zero; common faults: open circuit or poor contact (broken). (2) Micro switch: measure the resistance between normally open (resistance approaches infinity) and normally closed (resistance approaches zero); common faults: poor contact (burning black), buttons cannot be reset normally, the body rupture. (3) Protector: measure the resistance value; normally it is zero; it can automatically reset after a slight overload, and it will be permanently invalid when it is too large. It can also be disconnected (thermal protector) in case of high temperature, and it can also be automatically reset after normal temperature. (4) Bridge rectifier: short-circuit the output terminals (+, -), and measure the output terminal (+, -) DC resistance (about 15K). (5) Positive and negative switch: The pin corresponding to the toggle key is a common pin, and the two gears corresponding to the toggle key are connected. Three, circuit detection and analysis When you get a failure, the cause of the failure is unknown

 


Post time: Sep-13-2021