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What are the disassembly and assembly tools for automobiles: 1. Recognition and use of hand tools 1. Wrenches A hand tool used to tighten or loosen bolts, nuts and other threaded fasteners. (1) Open-end wrench: The most common type of wrench, also known as a dead-end wrench, has an opening of a fixed size at one or both ends for turning nuts or bolts of a certain size. (2) Torx wrench: There are working ends with hexagonal holes or twelve-angle holes at both ends, which is suitable for occasions where the working space is narrow and ordinary wrenches cannot be used. Comparison of (1) and (2): Compared with the open-end wrench, the torx wrench has higher strength and is not easy to slip off when used, but it is inconvenient to put on and take off. (3) Socket wrench: It is composed of multiple sockets with hexagonal holes or twelve-angle holes and equipped with handles, extension rods and other accessories. It is especially suitable for screwing in very narrow positions or deep recesses. Bolt or nut. (4) Adjustable wrench: The width of the opening can be adjusted within a certain size range, and it can turn bolts or nuts of different specifications. (5) Torque wrench: It can display the applied torque when turning the bolt or nut; or when the applied torque reaches the specified value, it will emit a light or sound signal. (6) Hexagon socket wrench: L-shaped hexagonal rod-shaped wrench, specially used for turning socket socket screws. The specification is expressed by the size of the opposite side of the hexagon. This picture is provided by the registered user “I am not a hero”, copyright notice feedback 2. Screwdriver A hand tool used to tighten or loosen slotted machine screws, wood screws and self-tapping screws of various sizes. Also known as screwdriver, screwdriver, screwdriver. Screwdrivers are generally divided into several types according to the shape of the knife edge at the top of the screw rod, such as in-line, cross, hexagon and pattern, and screw the threaded fasteners with corresponding screw heads. Among them, the straight type and cross type are the most commonly used. 3. Hand hammers and hand pliers. Hand hammers: hand tools used to strike or hammer objects. The hammer consists of two parts: a hammer head and a grip handle. The use of hammers is extremely common, with many forms and specifications. Common ones are round head hammer, claw hammer, chopper hammer and assorted hammer. Hand pliers: a hand tool used to clamp and fix processed workpieces or to twist, bend, or cut metal wires. The shape of the pliers is V-shaped and usually includes three parts: the handle, the jaw and the mouth of the pliers. The correct selection of hand tools: 1. According to the type of work, choose the priority order of wrench a, socket wrench b, box wrench c, open end wrench d, adjustable wrench 2. According to the workplace, the tool can be selected according to the installed handle. Various ways of working: a. Ratchet handle (used in narrow spaces, but with small twisting distance); b. Sliding handle (fastest speed); c. Rotating handle (can work quickly, but it is difficult to use in narrow spaces). 3. Choose the tool according to the size of the rotating torque. a. The longer the handle, the greater the torque can be obtained with a smaller force; b. But if you use an extra-long handle, there is a danger of excessive torque and the bolt may be broken. . Precautions 1. Wrench tools: (1) When using, use a wrench with a suitable specification according to the shape, specification and working conditions of the screw and nut. (2) During operation, the pulling force should be applied to the thicker side of the opening. In order to prevent the opening of the “eight” shape, damage to the nut and wrench. (3) Except for the socket wrench, no other wrenches can be fitted with a booster rod to prevent damage to the wrench or threaded connections. 2. Screwdriver: (1) The appropriate screwdriver should be selected according to the groove width and groove shape of the screw head to be tightened or loosened; (2) Do not use the screwdriver to tighten or loosen the workpiece in your hand The screws should be clamped in the fixture to prevent injury; (3) Do not use screws to pry any objects or remove metal burrs and other objects. 3. Hand hammer and hand pliers: (1) When using a hand hammer, carefully check whether the connection between the hammer head and the hammer handle is firm, and hold the back end of the hammer handle when holding the hammer. There are three ways to swing the hammer: wrist swing, elbow swing and arm swing. A. Wrist swing is the hammering motion with only the wrist. The hammering force is small, but it is accurate, fast and labor-saving; B. The arm swing is the wrist, elbow and full arm swing together, and the hammering force is the largest; C. Elbow swing The wrist and elbow are swung together to make a hammering motion. The hammering force is between the wrist and arm swings. (2) The use of pliers should be limited to the scope of its design: clamping or cutting, never use Pliers to tighten the nut. Jack A jack is a small and light lifting device that uses a rigid lifting piece as a working device to lift heavy objects within the stroke through the top bracket or the bottom bracket. It has two types: mechanical and hydraulic. The hydraulic jack has compact structure, stable operation and self-locking function, so it is widely used. The disadvantage is that the lifting height is limited and the lifting speed is slow. How to use: Take the hydraulic jack as an example: (1) Before lifting the car, wipe the top surface of the jack clean, tighten the hydraulic switch, and place the jack on the bottom of the top of the bed, and make the jack and the top of the bed perpendicular to each other , In case the jack slips out and causes an accident. (2) Rotate the screw on the top surface to change the original distance between the top surface of the jack and the top position of the quilt, so that the lifting height meets the required height of the car. (3) Use triangular slats to plug the wheels of the car on the ground front and back to prevent slippery accidents during the roofing process of the car. (4) Press the jack handle up and down with your hands, and the jacked car will gradually rise to a certain height, put a car bench under the frame, and it is forbidden to use bricks and other fragile objects to support the car. When getting off the vehicle, first check whether there are obstacles under the vehicle and ensure the safety of the operator. (5) Slowly loosen the hydraulic switch to make the car descend slowly and steadily, and the frame is stabilized on the car bench. Matters needing attention (1) It is forbidden to work under the car during the process of lifting or descending. (2) The hydraulic switch should be loosened slowly to make the car descend slowly, and the car should not descend too fast, otherwise accidents may easily occur. (3) When using a jack to lift a car on a soft road, a large area and pressure-bearing material (such as wood) should be added under the jack base to prevent the jack from sinking due to the weight of the car. The contact position of the jack and the car is correct and firm. (4) After jacking up the car, when the hydraulic switch is in the tightened state, if there is an automatic lowering failure, the cause should be found immediately, and the failure can be solved in time before continuing to use. (5) If the jack is found to be short of oil, the specified oil should be added in time, and other oil or water cannot be used instead. (6) The jack cannot be heated by fire to prevent damage to the leather bowl and apron. (7) The jack must be placed vertically to avoid failure due to oil leakage. Car lift The car lift is a device used to lift the car in the car maintenance process. The car is driven to the lift station, and the car can be lifted to a certain height through manual operation, which is convenient for car maintenance. According to functions and shapes, lifts can be generally divided into three categories: two-post, four-post, and scissor type. Precautions for use (1) The total mass of the vehicle cannot be greater than the lifting capacity of the lifter. (2) According to different models and parking positions, try to make the center of gravity of the car and the center of gravity of the lift as close as possible; be careful not to be too heavy. In order to open the door, there should be a certain distance between the car and the column. (3) Rotate, extend and adjust the lifting arm to the designated position of the chassis of the car and contact firmly. (4) Before the car is lifted, the operator should check whether there are obstacles and the movement of people around the car to prevent accidents. (5) When the car is lifted, it must be repeatedly lifted and lowered when the car is off the ground at a lower position. Only when there is no abnormal phenomenon can it be lifted to the required height. (6) After the car is lifted, it should be dropped on the ratchet teeth and locked immediately. Lifting cranes There are four types of cranes commonly used: portal type, cantilever type, monorail type and beam type. The cantilever crane is the most widely used in vehicle disassembly and assembly training, which is divided into two categories: mechanical and hydraulic. (1) Mechanical cantilever crane: Rotate the winch and ratchet through the handle, shrink or put a long iron chain to raise or lower the heavy object, which can be moved in a short distance. (2) Hydraulic cantilever crane: When lifting, due to the action of the oil pump, the pressure oil enters the working cylinder, pushing the ejector rod to move out, and lifting the heavy object. Open the oil drain valve, the oil in the working cylinder flows back to the oil tank, the pressure is reduced, and the heavy objects are lowered. Precautions for the use of lifting equipment: (1) Lifting heavy objects is not allowed to exceed the rated load. (2) The steel wire rope and rope buckle should be installed firmly. (3) The hanging parts should be as close to the ground as possible to reduce shaking. When lowering the hanging parts, be stable and not rush. (4) It is strictly forbidden to use a crane to pull the hanging parts in the non-lifting range. Special tools Piston ring dismounting pliers Piston ring dismounting pliers is a tool specially used for disassembling and disassembling piston rings to prevent the piston ring from being disassembled due to uneven force. Precautions for use: 1. When using piston ring dismounting pliers, clamp the ring clip on the piston ring loading and unloading pliers to the opening of the piston ring, lightly hold the handle slightly and evenly, and slowly shrink the handle, the ring clip will hold the piston ring Open slowly so that the piston ring can be taken out or loaded into the piston ring groove. 2. When using piston ring disassembly pliers to disassemble the piston ring, the force must be even to avoid breaking the piston ring due to excessive force, and it can also avoid hand injuries. Valve spring dismounting frame The valve spring dismounting frame is a tool specially used for disassembling and installing overhead valve springs. When in use, the bracket of the disassembly and assembly frame is pressed against the valve, the pressure ring is aligned with the valve spring seat, and then the handle is pressed down to make the valve spring compressed. At this time, you can remove the valve spring lock pin or lock piece, slowly loosen the handle, and then you can take out the valve spring seat, valve spring, and valve. Puller Puller is a special tool used to disassemble parts such as gears or bearings installed on the shaft with interference fit. The commonly used puller is a manual type, with a pressure screw and a pull claw on a one-rod bow-shaped fork. When in use, pad a backing plate between the shaft end and the pressure screw, pull the gear or bearing with the pull claw of the puller, and then tighten the pressure screw to pull the gear and other interference fit installation parts from the shaft. Grease gun Grease gun, also known as grease gun, is a tool specially used for filling grease (butter). The usage method is as follows: (1) Fill the butter ① Pull out the lever to move the plunger back, and screw down the front cover of the grease gun cylinder. ② Divide the clean butter into lumps and slowly put them into the cylinder, and make the butter lumps close to each other as much as possible to facilitate the discharge of air in the cylinder. ③Reinstall the front cover, push back the pull rod, and the plunger moves forward under the action of the spring to make the butter in a compressed state. (2) Lubrication method ① Align the grease gun joint with the grease nipple (grease nipple) that is being lubricated, straight in and straight out, not skewed, so as not to affect the grease filling and reduce the waste of grease. ②When filling the oil, if the filling fails, stop immediately, find out the cause of the blockage, and refill after removing the oil. (3) The main reason why no oil enters when filling grease ① There is no grease in the cylinder of the grease gun or there is air in the grease in the pressure cylinder. ②The oil pressure valve of the grease gun is blocked or the oil injection joint is blocked. ③The spring of the grease gun is too soft due to fatigue, resulting in insufficient elasticity or the spring breaks and fails.
Post time: Sep-22-2021